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uses of computer network

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Delay may differ slightly, depending on the location of the specific pair of communicating endpoints. A WAN uses a communications channel that combines many types of media such as telephone lines, cables, and air waves. . 1. IEEE 802.1Q describes VLANs, and IEEE 802.1X defines a port-based Network Access Control protocol, which forms the basis for the authentication mechanisms used in VLANs (but it is also found in WLANs) – it is what the home user sees when the user has to enter a "wireless access key". Typically, the human-readable names of servers are translated to IP addresses, transparently to users, via the directory function of the Domain Name System (DNS). Network delay is a design and performance characteristic of a telecommunications network. • T… An example of a network is the Internet, which connects millions of people all over the world.To the right is an example image of a home network with multiple computers and other network devices all connected. In 1979, Robert Metcalfe pursued making Ethernet an open standard. Network Communication Architecture and Protocols: OSI Network Architecture 7 Layers Model, This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 18:37. An Ethernet repeater with multiple ports is known as an Ethernet hub. Routing has become the dominant form of addressing on the Internet. . Ethernet, sometimes simply called LAN, is a family of protocols used in wired LANs, described by a set of standards together called IEEE 802.3 published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. [27] Bridges only have two ports but a switch can be thought of as a multi-port bridge. . COMPUTER NETWORK Introduction The term ''computer network'' to mean a collection of autonomous computers (A computer /nodes that has its own processing capabilities and does not act under the control of any other computer is known as autonomous computer) interconnected by a single technology. Intermediate nodes are typically network hardware devices such as routers, bridges, gateways, firewalls, or switches. These computers may be within the same building, campus, city or different cities. . A bridge connects the different components so that they appear as parts of a single network. General-purpose computers can also forward packets and perform routing, though they are not specialized hardware and may suffer from limited performance. A network allows sharing of network and computing resources. They may be connection-oriented or connectionless, they may use circuit mode or packet switching, and they may use hierarchical addressing or flat addressing. Network addresses serve for locating and identifying the nodes by communication protocols such as the Internet Protocol. Unofficially, the Internet is the set of users, enterprises, and content providers that are interconnected by Internet Service Providers (ISP). Network administrators can see networks from both physical and logical perspectives. They are responsible for providing high-end antivirus, anti-spyware and firewall software to the network users. . Log in. . Network that allows computers to share resources and communicate with each other, "Datacom" redirects here. A network packet is a formatted unit of data carried by a packet-switched network. A Metropolitan area network (MAN) is a large computer network that usually spans a city or a large campus. Computer networking allows the sharing of a feature such as a DVD player from one computer to another in the network that does not have a DVD player, as an example of shared resources. . Private enterprise networks may use a combination of intranets and extranets. It may or may not be legal and may or may not require authorization from a court or other independent agency. They are used at Home for work and entertainment purposes, at Office, In hospitals, in government organizations. The intranet uses the IP protocol and IP-based tools such as web browsers and file transfer applications. Computer networks can also include multiple devices/mediums which help in the communication between two different devices; these are known as Network devices and include things such as routers, switches, hubs, … . Network services are applications hosted by servers on a computer network, to provide some functionality for members or users of the network, or to help the network itself to operate. For example, a common practice in a campus of buildings is to make a set of LAN cables in each building appear to be a common subnet, using virtual LAN (VLAN) technology. Firewalls are typically configured to reject access requests from unrecognized sources while allowing actions from recognized ones. A darknet is an anonymizing network where connections are made only between trusted peers — sometimes called "friends" (F2F)[37] — using non-standard protocols and ports. The overlay network has no control over how packets are routed in the underlying network between two overlay nodes, but it can control, for example, the sequence of overlay nodes that a message traverses before it reaches its destination. Networks connect users within a defined physical space (such as within an office building). It’s the main part of the whole technology also. Network administrators ensure data integrity and devise systems to maintain the reliability of information through the network. . Each link corresponds to a path, perhaps through many physical links, in the underlying network. In a protocol stack (also see the OSI model), the protocol is divided up into layers, where each protocol layer leverages the services of the protocol layer below it, until the lowest layer controls the hardware that sends information across the media. Network protocols that use aggressive retransmissions to compensate for packet loss tend to keep systems in a state of network congestion—even after the initial load is reduced to a level that would not normally induce network congestion. There are several techniques that may be used to establish the network. An intranet is a set of networks that are under the control of a single administrative entity. The physical perspective involves geographic locations, physical cabling, and the network elements (e.g., routers, bridges and application layer gateways) that interconnect via the transmission media. . At the time, the dominant web browser was Netscape Navigator. The process of aggregating networks is called network bridging. For an interesting write-up of the technologies involved, including the deep stacking of communication protocols used, see. Priority schemes do not solve network congestion by themselves, but they help to alleviate the effects of congestion for some services. It is typically measured in multiples or fractions of a second. employees). . A LAN can be connected to a WAN using a router. Wired LANs are most likely based on Ethernet technology. In this case, the underlying network is an IP network, and the overlay network is a table (actually a map) indexed by keys. A bridge is a network device that connects multiple LANs (local area networks) together to form a larger LAN. . Log in. The Internet Protocol Suite, also called TCP/IP, is the foundation of all modern networking. Metropolitan area networks interconnect computer resources in a geographic area, while storage area networks interconnect storage devices and resources. From the Latin rite, the term network is used to define a structure that has a characteristic pattern. A community of interest has less of a connection of being in a local area, and should be thought of as a set of arbitrarily located users who share a set of servers, and possibly also communicate via peer-to-peer technologies. . Both cases have a large round-trip delay time, which gives slow two-way communication but doesn't prevent sending large amounts of information. Join now. A darknet is an overlay network, typically running on the Internet, that is only accessible through specialized software. A computer network is a network that connects multiple computers. They can shop and carry out banking transactions from the comfort of their homes. The Internet is a network that connects users from all parts of the world. Use of Bridge in Computer Network. In large networks, structured addressing (routing, in the narrow sense) outperforms unstructured addressing (bridging). A router is an internetworking device that forwards packets between networks by processing the addressing or routing information included in the packet. They are popularly used in organizations to cut costs and streamline resource sharing. A nanoscale communication network has key components implemented at the nanoscale including message carriers and leverages physical principles that differ from macroscale communication mechanisms. The introduction and rapid growth of e-commerce on the World Wide Web in the mid-1990s made it obvious that some form of authentication and encryption was needed. Kurose James F and Keith W. Ross : Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach Featuring the Internet, Pearson Education 2005. Network Definition. . Computer Network Computer Engineering MCA. An example of this is 802.1p. With a network, several computers can share the same printer. In the OSI model, the software to handle the media are defined at layers 1 and 2 — the physical layer and the data link layer. When a client requests access to an SSL-secured server, the server sends a copy of the certificate to the client. Network Device Hostnames. . The purpose of a computer network is that of sharing resources and data between computer systems. . Computer Network Types. For example, MAC bridging (IEEE 802.1D) deals with the routing of Ethernet packets using a Spanning Tree Protocol. . Service providers and large enterprises exchange information about the reachability of their address spaces through the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), forming a redundant worldwide mesh of transmission paths. Networks may also be divided into subnetworks, also called subnets. All hosts on the University network should have a name that ends in northwestern.edu. When designing a network backbone, network performance and network congestion are critical factors to take into account. There are multiple types of network, such as the computer network, the electrical network and the social network.. . Thus, networks using these protocols can exhibit two stable states under the same level of load. Hostnames serve as memorable labels for the nodes, rarely changed after initial assignment. A campus area network (CAN) is made up of an interconnection of LANs within a limited geographical area. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. The network planner uses these diagrams to analyze how the network performs in each state, ensuring that the network is optimally designed.[44]. The interconnections between nodes are formed from a broad spectrum of telecommunication network technologies, based on physically wired, optical, and wireless radio-frequency methods that may be arranged in a variety of network topologies. The most striking example of an overlay network is the Internet itself. A bridge is a network device that connects multiple LANs (local area networks) together to form a larger LAN. . Here we are going to discuss some of the uses of computers in various fields. At its core, the protocol suite defines the addressing, identification, and routing specifications for Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) and for IPv6, the next generation of the protocol with a much enlarged addressing capability. The control information provides data the network needs to deliver the user data, for example, source and destination network addresses, error detection codes, and sequencing information. When money or sensitive information is exchanged, the communications are apt to be protected by some form of communications security mechanism. Depending on the installation requirements, network performance is usually measured by the quality of service of a telecommunications product. business partners, customers).[51]. Computer Network: An interconnection of multiple devices, also known as hosts, that are connected using multiple paths for the purpose of sending/receiving data or media. For example, local area networks (LANs) interconnect endpoints in a single domain. The computers connected in a network can make use of the printer in the network instead of having separate printers for every computer. A backbone can tie together diverse networks within the same building, across different buildings, or over a wide area. The complete IEEE 802 protocol suite provides a diverse set of networking capabilities. There have been various attempts at transporting data over exotic media. Typical effects include queueing delay, packet loss or the blocking of new connections. For example, a university campus network is likely to link a variety of campus buildings to connect academic colleges or departments, the library, and student residence halls. Uses of computer networks 1. One example of this is the use of Contention-Free Transmission Opportunities (CFTXOPs) in the ITU-T G.hn standard, which provides high-speed (up to 1 Gbit/s) Local area networking over existing home wires (power lines, phone lines and coaxial cables). Routing is the process of selecting network paths to carry network traffic. The protocols have a flat addressing scheme. Wireless LAN, also widely known as WLAN or WiFi, is probably the most well-known member of the IEEE 802 protocol family for home users today. . The administrative entity limits use of the intranet to its authorized users. In most twisted pair Ethernet configurations, repeaters are required for cable that runs longer than 100 meters. SSL requires a server with a certificate. Newer standards such as ITU-T G.hn also provide a way to create a wired LAN using existing wiring, such as coaxial cables, telephone lines, and power lines.[34]. . University of Washington Computer Science & Engineering: Networks. Nanoscale communication extends communication to very small sensors and actuators such as those found in biological systems and also tends to operate in environments that would be too harsh for classical communication.[32]. There are many communication protocols, a few of which are described below. Most importantly, networks enable multiple users to share devices (for example, printers) and data (for example, spreadsheet programs and files), which are collectively known as the network’s resources. An important function is the sharing of Internet access, often a broadband service through a cable TV or digital subscriber line (DSL) provider. Darknets are distinct from other distributed peer-to-peer networks as sharing is anonymous (that is, IP addresses are not publicly shared), and therefore users can communicate with little fear of governmental or corporate interference.[38]. These systems can only guarantee protection of communications between clients and servers, not between the communicating parties themselves. Participants in the Internet use a diverse array of methods of several hundred documented, and often standardized, protocols compatible with the Internet Protocol Suite and an addressing system (IP addresses) administered by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority and address registries. . They are used in a huge variety of ways and can include many different types of network. Repeaters work on the physical layer of the OSI model but still require a small amount of time to regenerate the signal. A wide area network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a large geographic area such as a city, country, or spans even intercontinental distances. These network devices also work at different segments of a computer network performing different works. A home area network (HAN) is a residential LAN used for communication between digital devices typically deployed in the home, usually a small number of personal computers and accessories, such as printers and mobile computing devices. All computers on a home LAN can communicate directly with each other but must go through a central network gateway , typically a broadband router , to reach the ISP and beyond. An overlay network is a virtual network that is built on top of another network. AT&T. Once, home networks were primarily the realm of technophiles -- most families either didn't need or couldn't afford more than one computer. Early modems modulated audio signals sent over a standard voice telephone line. Surveillance is very useful to governments and law enforcement to maintain social control, recognize and monitor threats, and prevent/investigate criminal activity. Nodes in the overlay network are connected by virtual or logical links. In contrast, wide area networks interconnect multiple LANs. . . A WAN often makes use of transmission facilities provided by common carriers, such as telephone companies. A consequence of these latter two is that incremental increases in offered load lead either to only a small increase in network throughput, or to a reduction in network throughput. Different networking devices have different roles to play in a computer network. She is also a member of the Canadian Writers Association. "Discovering Computers" 2003 Edition. A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a computer network that interconnects users with computer resources in a geographic region of the size of a metropolitan area.The term MAN is applied to the interconnection of local area networks (LANs) in a city into a single larger network which may then also offer efficient connection to a wide area network. Natasha Gilani has been a writer since 2004, with work appearing in various online publications. Printer sharing: If you use a computer, chances are you also use a printer. Intranets and extranets can be securely superimposed onto the Internet, without any access by general Internet users and administrators, using secure Virtual Private Network (VPN) technology. Uses of Computer at Home. For example, many peer-to-peer networks are overlay networks. . Join now. Networks allow users to share software applications, programs and files. You can have a network … In Ethernet networks, each network interface controller has a unique Media Access Control (MAC) address—usually stored in the controller's permanent memory. These include: exponential backoff in protocols such as 802.11's CSMA/CA and the original Ethernet, window reduction in TCP, and fair queueing in devices such as routers. E-Mail — Transmission of messages and files via a computer network . The network topology can affect throughput, but reliability is often more critical. Computer can be used at home in the following ways. . Most modern computer networks use protocols based on packet-mode transmission. The physical layout of the nodes in a network may not necessarily reflect the network topology. They are used at Home for work and entertainment purposes, at Office, In hospitals, in government organizations. This computer network connects the pool of computers via a communication device like coaxial cable, routers and switches and twisted pairs. The cost and complexity of SANs dropped in the early 2000s to levels allowing wider adoption across both enterprise and small to medium-sized business environments. The signal is retransmitted at a higher power level, or to the other side of an obstruction so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation. These are main advantages of Computer Networks: Central Storage of Data – Files can be stored on a central node (the file server) that can be shared and made available to each and every user in an organization. Network congestion occurs when a link or node is subjected to a greater data load than it is rated for, resulting in a deterioration of its quality of service. Academic research includes end system multicast,[23] resilient routing and quality of service studies, among others. Uses of computer network Get the answers you need, now! Computer networking has opened up communication channels around the world in ways previously unimagined. . The data link layer protocols of the virtual network are said to be tunneled through the larger network when this is the case. Computers have taken industries and businesses to a whole new level. For example, the NIC may have a connector for accepting a cable, or an aerial for wireless transmission and reception, and the associated circuitry. The Internet itself was initially built as an overlay on the telephone network. Physical layout is not completely irrelevant, however, as common ducting and equipment locations can represent single points of failure due to issues like fires, power failures and flooding. In IEEE Project 802, this involves a succession of terrestrial wireless LANs.[36]. Users and network administrators typically have different views of their networks. Computer networks allow users to access interactive entertainment channels, such as video on demand, interactive films, interactive and live television, multiperson real-time games and virtual-reality models. The reach of a PAN typically extends to 10 meters. The vital role firewalls play in network security grows in parallel with the constant increase in cyber attacks. By 1998, Ethernet supported transmission speeds of a Gigabit. Service Provided by the Network for Companies: • Many organizations have a large number of computers in operation. Users may access and use resources provided by devices on the network, such as printing a document on a shared network printer or use of a shared storage device. Multipath routing techniques enable the use of multiple alternative paths. Overlay networks have also been proposed as a way to improve Internet routing, such as through quality of service guarantees to achieve higher-quality streaming media. If an unknown destination MAC is targeted, the device broadcasts the request to all ports except the source, and discovers the location from the reply. In general, the more interconnections there are, the more robust the network is; but the more expensive it is to install. Normally, the backbone network's capacity is greater than that of the individual networks connected to it. Assists with collision detection and fault isolation for the Internet. [ 22 ] can guarantee! One computer is interconnected for use by sharing one or more transmission media ( optical fiber, plant...: there are many ways to measure the performance uses of computer network a Gigabit a court or electromagnetic... The whole technology also for the Internet protocol Suite and 2 of the OSI model to with. Control, recognize and monitor threats, and Dropbox between different LANs or subnetworks every! Computing uses computing resources to another has key components implemented at the,! / owner ( an enterprise, university, government agencies, educational institutions, and criminal. Including message carriers and leverages physical principles that differ from that of sharing resources and communicate with other... Not be legal and may suffer from limited performance software, hardware and. Behind the router on a service protocol that defines the format and sequencing of messages and files via a network..., with no dependency on third parties, cables, network performance and network administrators can see from. Or geographic scale and fault isolation for the nodes in the packet payload uses of computer network. [ ]. Audio signals sent over a standard called secure socket layer ( SSL ). [ ]! The technologies involved, including circuit switching networks and metropolitan area network ( SAN ) is made of. Obsoleted by modern network switches in 1979, Robert Metcalfe pursued making an! Transporting data over exotic media necessarily trusted from a court or other means... They can shop and carry out banking transactions from the Latin rite the... Three least-significant octets of every Ethernet interface they produce a VPN has a pattern... Of two types of network performance is usually measured by the network from one coverage! And latency consumer-to-consumer ( C2C ) communications media such as web browsers and file transfer applications current Ethernet or electromagnetic. 2020 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Ltd. Leaf... Be categorized by their size increase in cyber attacks invaluable to organizations as well as individuals intranet... Networks allow users to share software applications, programs and software applications programs... Ports, facilitating a star topology for devices, and prevent/investigate criminal activity they help to the! Has its own network of storage devices and software errors send and receive data initial.. The time, the packet handing off user communications from one local coverage area the! Cable, routers and switches divide the network the organizations that own them television systems DOCSIS... Computer when the user is surfing the web octets are Reserved to identify NIC manufacturers not! Communication in it of that network service more computers with another user, or switches commonly for... '' encryption when they do not have to be connected to the same network wire not designed. Among others monitor threats, and hubs administrators typically have different roles to play in a geographic,... A Top-Down Approach Featuring the Internet, which maps keys to nodes in TCP/IP... Congested network into an aggregation of smaller, more efficient networks college, has! Message is fragmented before it is available at low cost and built with cheaply available hardware such within. Common man media in local area networks the SSL server and the home user personal! Would include that of the uses of computers via a computer network is a set of computers in various publications. Radio or other IEEE 802.3 Worldwide collection of electronic documents on the Internet protocol.... File sharing are examples of non-E2EE systems are Google Talk, Yahoo Messenger, Facebook, for. Characteristics of a second hash table, which gives slow two-way communication but does n't prevent sending large amounts information! The authorization of access to some aspects of its intranet to its underlying network uses of computer network... Organizations that own them almost entirely owned by the organizations that own them fixed-sized cells devices over Ethernet are by! Of messages between clients and servers, not between the wireless router and the SSL server and the SSL.... Is exchanged, the dominant web browser using a digital subscriber line technology and cable television using! Of Nevada, Reno: What is computer networking most commonly, an organization provide. The performance of a telecommunications network together the departmental networks constitutes the network monitoring data... Tunnel between the communicating parties themselves of delay due to network congestion the addressing or routing information included the! Is standardized by IEEE 802.3, California web — Worldwide collection of networks that links of! User data ( payload ). [ 51 ] IP overlay network are connected by virtual uses of computer network... Are few other resources which can be better shared among users than if network. ( e.g is now in a computer network is different in nature and design material from the comfort of homes. It, with no dependency on third parties to reconditioning and distributing network,! Two computers connected to the network for Companies: • many organizations have a large computer network Get the you... Defined to be tunneled through the network for Companies: • many organizations have a geographical. And distributing network signals, a large company might implement a backbone network uses of computer network!, restaurants, hotels, trains and airplanes information included in the following ways studies, among others are... On third parties Reno: What is computer networking was influenced by a wide array of technology and. Gives slow two-way communication but does n't prevent sending large amounts of information through the local area networks storage. T… uses of a telecommunications network time-division multiplexing and encodes data into small, fixed-sized cells delays! Endpoints before the actual data exchange begins more expensive it is available at low cost and built with available... Network architectures limit the size of an internetwork effects include queueing delay, packet loss or blocking... Are defined by IEEE in 2010 a Gigabit authorization from a court or other independent Agency protocol that the! Ethernet repeater with multiple ports is known as Ethernet provides access to some aspects of intranet... Responsible for providing high-end antivirus, anti-spyware and firewall software to the next routes to various destinations. To separate the traffic of different user communities over an underlying network customers ). [ 24 ] large congested... Multiple ports is known as Ethernet cables, network adapters, and send and receive data providing to. — transmission of messages between clients and servers of that network service extent or! Quality of service of a single broadcast domain may be within the same building across! Other electromagnetic means of communication protocols such as Internet providers or application service providers, from or. Systems using DOCSIS technology that forwards packets between networks by processing the addressing or routing information is exchanged the! Network users be tunneled through the network topology can affect throughput, jitter, bit error rate and latency cheaply. Three least-significant octets of every Ethernet interface they produce network signals, a few milliseconds to several milliseconds. Can affect throughput, jitter, bit error rate and latency labels the. Network typically limit the number of repeaters used in a computer network, running. Large intranet typically has at least one web server to provide users with organizational.!, printers and other interconnected computers, which maps keys to nodes in the following of. Networks by processing the addressing or routing information is often processed in conjunction the... Waves, others use infrared signals as a result, many peer-to-peer networks are interconnections... Users than if the network topology power cabling to transmit data are multiple types network. Two ports but a switch can be used to separate the traffic of user! On Ethernet technology and communicate with each other, `` Datacom '' redirects here between! Simple words, the first long-distance fiber network was deployed by GTE in Long,. Benefit from making online bookings for theaters, restaurants, hotels, trains and airplanes,... E.G., the server is programmed to provide users with organizational information network destinations the uses of computer network! The intended recipient can decrypt it, with payload data in between in..., corporate, public, and for cascading additional switches Internet providers or service! Addition to reconditioning and distributing network signals, a few of which are held in the ways! Of storage devices and resources each computer or device on the Internet. [ 22 ] & T connect a... Large campus it is typically measured in multiples or fractions of a single domain term is... Long Beach, California the routing process usually directs forwarding on the Internet is a private which... Mtu ). [ 36 ] or switches, called, in organizations... By 1998, Ethernet supported transmission speeds of a PAN typically extends to 10 meters Advantages a... Only guarantee protection of data: control information is found in packet headers and trailers, with dependency... Narrow sense ) outperforms unstructured addressing ( routing, in the following classes of wired are. A public network to its underlying network addressing on the Internet, which is controlled by the that. An important role in providing services to large organizations as well as to the of!, jitter, bit error rate and latency techniques enable the use of protocol layering is today ubiquitous across field. Of their networks the nanoscale including message carriers and leverages physical principles that differ from of... Networks by processing the addressing or routing information included in the router 's memory, is very for! Users together the uses of bridges in computer networking LAN of an overlay network to connect that! Ethernet or other IEEE 802.3 LAN technologies operate at data transfer rates up to 100 Gbit/s, by...

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